Setting up for Success: Part 1

You’ve decided to start a new business – how exciting! There are many important things to consider when getting everything set up, such as your human resources policies (your employees matter!) and software and solutions (you want everything organized and running smoothly). Another important component you need to consider is your accounting – after all, these numbers lay the foundation for your business and essentially tell your story.

Accounting is an important part of your business, and getting it right the first time is crucial. So where do you even begin?

First, it’s important to understand your business and industry. This understanding can help you answer some important questions for designing your accounting system. Some of the questions that may come up include:

  • “What basis of accounting should I be using?”
  • “What information should I be tracking in order to make informed decisions?”
  • “I know what I want to track, but how do I track it?”

Let’s start with the first question: selecting your basis of accounting. Your basis of accounting is essentially a framework used to record your transactions. There are a few different types to choose from, with the following being the most common.

  • U.S. GAAP (United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) – Try saying that one ten times fast. This is an accrual based framework in which revenues and expenses are recorded when they are earned and incurred, respectively. This is the most commonly recommended type.
  • Cash Basis – In this framework, revenues and expenses are recorded when cash is received or paid, respectively. Cash basis presents two different methods of accounting: pure and modified. The difference comes in that under modified cash bases, some transactions follow U.S. GAAP. Check out this blog to learn more about cash versus accrual methods.
  • Income Tax Basis – This is a framework in which revenue and expense recording depends on tax regulations. This helps eliminate the need for converting from one basis of accounting to another for tax return purposes.
  • Regulatory – In this framework, a regulatory agency prescribes the best method.

Now that we’ve looked at the different basis types available, it’s time to determine what information you should be tracking. The key here is to capture all of your business transactions in the simplest, and most efficient, way possible. This includes both cash and noncash transactions.

Depending on your specific business or industry, you might need to consider tracking your transactions in greater detail. Here are some areas to consider tracking:

  • Should you be tracking direct and indirect costs related to construction or manufacturing contracts so you can see the profitability?
  • What sales tax jurisdictions do you need to track for sales tax reporting?
  • Do you need to track certain items for tax return purposes?
  • If you do business in multiple states, should you be tracking transactions by state for tax purposes?
  • Do you have different departments or divisions that you need to track in order to view profitability?

Once you decide what information you should be tracking, you can select an accounting solution, and start designing your accounting system.

Stay tuned for the second part of this blog, where we go in depth about how you track your information. Although we’ve shared similar posts about these topics in the past, we think a refresh and reminder is important. If you need help in the meantime, just ask!

Accounting 101: Setting Up Your Books

Accounting, it’s all about the numbers. That’s what most think, but accounting is really a story. Your financial data (even though it is expressed in numbers rather than words) tells a story of where your business has been, where your business is currently, and where you can go in the future. Accounting is one of the functional pillars of your business; it’s important to get it right … the first time.

Understanding Your Business and Industry: An understanding of your business and industry is imperative to answering several key questions when designing your accounting system:

“What basis of accounting should I use?”

“What information do I need to track to make informed business decisions?”

“How should I track the information?”

Selecting Your Basis of Accounting: Selecting my WHAT? The basis of accounting is the framework used to record your business transactions. There are several different frameworks. The most common include:

  • U.S. GAAP (United States Generally Accepted Accounting Principles) – an accrual based accounting framework in which revenues and expenses are recorded when earned and incurred, respectively. (Recommended)
  • Income Tax Basis – a framework in which recording of revenue and expenses depends on the tax regulations; eliminates the need for converting from one basis of accounting for recordkeeping to another for tax return purposes.
  • Cash Basis – a framework in which revenues and expenses are recorded when cash is received or paid, respectively. There are two different methods of cash basis accounting: pure and modified. The main difference is under the modified cash basis some transactions follow U.S. GAAP (ex. fixed assets are capitalized and depreciation is recognized). Here’s more on cash versus accrual accounting methods.
  • Regulatory – a framework in which a regulatory agency prescribes the method.

Determining What Information to Track: The key is to capture all of the transactions that occur in your business (cash and noncash) in the simplest and most efficient manner.

Speaking of noncash transactions –a common mistake in accounting is not accounting for your trade work. Look for an upcoming blog related to accounting for bartering transactions (trade).

Based on your business or industry, you may need to consider tracking your business transactions in more depth. Below are several considerations (not all inclusive but should give you an idea):

“Should I be tracking direct and indirect costs related to manufacturing or construction contracts so I am able to view the profitability?”

“Do I have different departments, product lines, divisions, programs, etc. that I should be tracking so I am able to view the profitability?”

“Do I pay commissions and should I be tracking transactions, such as revenues, by each sales representative to determine the proper calculation for those commissions?”

“Do I work in several states and should I be tracking transactions, such as revenue and payroll, by state for tax return preparation?”

“What sales tax jurisdiction do I need to track for sales tax reporting?

“Do I need to track certain items such as meals, donations, etc. for tax return preparation?”

Once you figure out what information you need to track, you can select an accounting software solution and design your accounting system.

So what’s next? Check out our upcoming blog about the basics on how to track your financial information.

Accounting System Setup 101

Cash v. Accrual Accounting: Why It Matters

One of the more important things to consider when starting a new business is the decision to use the cash or accrual accounting method. This decision is not just another item to check off your to do list, but one that has repercussions on how you do your taxes and on the future of your business. The key item to consider is which method will most clearly reflect the financial outcomes of your business.

It is also important to note that once a method of accounting is established, it must continue to be used, or the taxpayer must file an accounting method change to request consent to change their method of accounting. This can get tricky, and end up costing you time and money to accomplish, so make sure you think through which method works best before you start recording transactions. Plus, by knowing what to expect, it will make it a little easier on you at tax time (which we can all agree, is a pretty nice thing).

So I get they’re different. But how are they different?

Cash basis accounting is probably the most common for small business owners, often because of its simplicity. Income is reported when cash, or the constructive receipt of cash, is IN HAND. Same principal applies for expenses. You don’t report, or deduct, your expenses until they’re actually paid.

Accrual basis accounting is a little more complex. Income is reported when it is EARNED. This means it may often be recorded before payment is actually in hand. Expenses follow the same vein, and are reported when they occur and are fixed as to the amount.

Okay, but which is better?

It depends on your business type and what you do. The accrual basis of accounting helps you better understand the current condition of your business finances, while the cash basis of accounting focuses on your current cash on hand. The accrual method may allow you to see a better picture of your financial position and company profits because it reports everything earned during a period as well as expenses incurred. You need to also keep in mind, while the cash basis offers simplicity in application, there are some limitations on the use of the cash method of accounting. Further, accrual accounting is generally used by a business that has inventories as part of their business operation.

What about tax reporting?

The type of accounting method you choose affects your tax deductions. It’s a subtle difference, but an important one. Say you, a calendar year taxpayer, received an expense invoice in November 2015 and pay it on January 15, 2016. Under the cash method, you won’t be able to deduct that expense until you report taxes for 2016. However, under the accrual method, you can claim the deduction in 2015 if all events have happened to fix the amount due.

Now, let’s talk about income reporting. You, again a calendar year taxpayer, invoice a customer in November 2015 for services performed and they pay you January 15, 2016. If you’re using the accrual method, you’ll pay tax in 2015 on services for which you haven’t actually received payment, since the right to receive, and the amount of payment to be received, was known and fixed in 2015. However, under the cash method, you would pay tax on the service completed once the cash was in hand in 2016.

The moral of the story?

It’s important to understand your business and your finances. By understanding your books and where you’re headed, you’ll be able to choose the accounting method that works best for you.

Still not sure what we’re talking about?

Here’s the truth: taxes are complex and complicated. You don’t have to know it all. We can help.

Cash v. accrual